Wanwun is the term given to indigenous music in the valley. Wanwun, which means chorus in Kashmiri, is the oldest type of singing. Since time immemorial, this folk melody has solely been sung by women and performed on happy occasions.

It is now only sung during wedding rituals, and is so associated with Kashmiri wedding melodies. Wanwun has become such an important component of Kashmiri weddings that any Kashmiri wedding would be incomplete without it.

Women in Wanwun sit or stand in groups opposite one other and sing in chorus with the same music on a fixed beat, taking turns. The songs are performed in utterance form, with a duet between the two groups in which one group of women asks a question and the other group of women responds rhythmically. It features a spoken-word beat, and the lyrics include metaphor, alliteration, simile, and emphasis, among other things.

Wanwun music, a popular Kashmiri music, has been utilized in Muslim and Hindu weddings to sing praises to the bride and groom, greet their families, and bestow blessings for the future. The only difference is the wording used. The 'Butt-e-Wanwun' (Hindu wanwun) uses Sanskrit language, but the 'Musalman Wanwun' contains a large number of Persian phrases.


Chakri is Kashmir's most popular folk music. Chakar, an indigenous form, has been utilized to tell stories, fables, fairy tales, and famous love romances like 'Yousuf Zulaikha,' 'Laila Majnun,' and others.

A lead vocalist sings in this musical form, while a chorus of singers follows him. All vocalists play musical instruments such as the 'Garaha,' 'Noet,' 'Sarangi,' 'Rabab,' and 'Harmonium' while singing.

Rouf is the most common ending for Chakri. Despite the fact that Rouf is a dance form, Chakri's final notes are quick and played differently. This section is known as 'Chakritirouf,' and it is sung by singers with hoarse voices.


Ladishah is a satirical folk singing form primarily sung by men. This folk music arose from the performances of roaming singers who traveled from place to place during the harvest season. People provided them bread, cereals, and money in exchange for their company.

It's possible that the practice has faded over time. Ladishah, on the other hand, remains the most important aspect of Kashmiri music history. Ladishah, a gipsy singer, sings the songs in this style of music. He performs the role of a communicator, conveying daily events and current events to the public in the form of a song, packed with wit, humour, and sarcasm.

The song is a political, social, and/or cultural criticism intended to amuse and delight the masses. The music for Ladishah songs comes from a traditional instrument called ‘Dhukar,’ an iron rod with metal pieces inserted in it. Ladishah(singer) jerks them rhythmically and derives music from it. He composes the song on the spot, and the song’s opening line is always, ‘Assalamualaikum Ladishah aao!’ which means Greetings! Here comes Ladishah!

Sufiana Music

Sufiana Music, also known as Sufiana Mousiqi, is considered Kashmir's classical music. It is a fusion of the music of Persia and Central Asia India. It arrived in Kashmir in the 15th century with the arrival of Sufism from Iran.

Variations of Indian Ragas were added to this music form as time went on. Sufiana Kalam is based mostly on the melodic notion of 'Maqamat,' which refers to the numerous stages a Sufi's soul must pass through in his quest for Allah.

This music is intended to lift the souls of all believers out of the realm of the mundane and into the realm of the divine. Sufiana music is solely dedicated to singing thanks to God and defining his characteristics. The 'Santoor,' 'Saz,' and 'Sitar' are the three basic musical instruments utilized in Sufiana music.

Hafiz Nagma

Sufiana Kalam has a branch called Hafiz Nagma. Women (Hafiza) dressed in traditional costume sing calming Sufiana tunes and dance beautifully at various wedding rites, particularly during 'Mehndiraat' (the night when Henna is applied to the bride and groom) and 'Baraat' (the groom's journey to the bride's residence).

Previously, it was also conducted to commemorate births and harvests. Hafiza, joined by a group of guys, performs a mesmerizing performance using instruments such as the 'Santoor,' 'Sitar,' 'Tabla,' and 'Wasool.'